I agree that all the different names are confusing! The good news is that there are basically only 2 types of persona:
The difference is to do with how the personas are created.
In an ideal world, you start with a blank sheet of paper, make no assumptions, and conduct extensive user research. You talk to lots of real-world ...
I don't think there is an exact definition, but each of the instances or types you mentioned (keeping in mind that they come from different combinations of sources) relate to some characteristic or property of a persona, so let's deal with that first.
Definition of a Persona - from NNg website:
A persona is a fictional, yet realistic, description of a ...