If they can only select one, I would go with a treeview type control, primarily because this allows you to display the top-level options, that they must select and not overload the user with sub-options they can't select, once the user has made their top-level select, I would then show those to the user.
Here is an example of a very similar design I worked on before.
Three ways to make it easier for the user to get to the record required:
1- Add Sorting, it always comes in handy to provide the user with sorting options.
2- Filters! Think of the most useful filters that users would need.
3- Provide Search text-field that responds on the fly while user is ...
A great way to turn this around is to ask: how do you go about finding what you need? What would you like the optimal experience to be? And how have similar products/solutions been modeled?
There are two ways in which someone likes to find what they're looking for: with conversational queries, and relational queries.
Reuters and Zoosk are great examples of ...
Given your mockup, I think there would be at least some confusion because the states of the "inline" filters don't match the states of the corresponding filter bar filters. For example, if I set the filter bar "Query Status" filter to "Open", the inline filter should automatically be set to "Open" to match, and vice versa.