Seconding Ben's answer, if I understand the Material Design bidirectionality guidelines correctly then it should be mirrored:
When a UI is mirrored, these changes occur:
Text fields icons are displayed on the opposite side of a field
Navigation buttons are displayed in reverse order
Icons that communicate direction, like arrows, are mirrored
You could run a card sorting exercise with your users to determine what links should go where. They are very quick and cheap to run, if you aren't familiar with them you can read about them here.
My assumption would be option 2, provided that is the entirety of the menu items. It's short ...
I find it is best to include the UI back button by default (for the reasons listed by @Tin Man as well as parity and operational efficiency when designing an app for both iOS & Android). However, you should consider the implications of doing so on a screen-by-screen basis.
Additionally, you may want to specify different actions for the hardware back ...
What a great question. As a general rule, it's good to flip positioning of iconography for RTL languages. So your bottom option, with the chevron on the left, is correct.
If you're curious, I'm basing this answer on lessons learned running as lead designer on multiple projects with the NYC DOE and NYC mayor's office, where all projects have to support 11 ...
Your main menu on the top of the application should link to the primary title to which it relates.
Links to items within articles can, indeed, link to an item within a page.
This is fairly common practise.
Depending on how much categories You have, it's possible to structuring menu into levels and tabs.
Significant in designing this type of menu is UI, i think about specific sizes between elements, in order to obtain readability and ease in navigating.
Another solution may be going back and re-categorizing elements to minimize the number of choices