I checked in the Google Forms code but it's not really helping ha ha :D
I would go for a mix between utilites and the way it display.
It seems to be an "Editor Toolbar" that floats and which is sticky to a certain position.
I tried so search about "Sticky Floating Tool Bar Editor" by got a lot of noise in the result. Adding &...
If you use the Material Design documentation as a reference, I think a navigation rail or a floating action button group would be closest to what you are looking for, but there are always new interpretations and adaptations to the core components described.
Therefore, you will find that often Material Design requires some interpretation and adaptation ...
It depends on the purpose.
If you are going to use it for searching of products by price, then open/closed will over-complicate the UI. I'd suggest not to use it all. Instead, use just two fields and consider them both as closed interval ends.
If you are going to use it for some application where formal mathematical logic is important (e.g. mathematics, ...