Can we have the 12/16/24 columns in 1440(any size) pixel container to make a responsive grid while creating a design as I have seen most sources to use 1170 pixels area and gutter size 15 pixels only ?
Not at all. Not even in Bootstrap, not anywhere.
Responsive is responsive, your sizes and boundaries will depend on your needs and project, nothing else. 1170px is a popular size because Bootstrap is the most widely used framework and it uses that size, but it can be replaced with anything you want.
Technology changes everyday, and 1170px was chosen as a secure popular screen size at the time it was made, nowadays it leaves a lot of space at the sides, so developers need to change defaults and customize their versions (and yes, you can have 16 columns if you want by simply changing the
However, while this answer seems to be based on Bootstrap, please be aware that you could use other frameworks, or you could even go framework agnostic and the answer will be the same: you don't need any default limits, just use what you want: if you code it right, it will be responsive anyways
Responsive means it adapts to fit all screen sizes. Generally the worry with responsive design is at the small end of the scale, with getting things to work on mobile and tablets, however there is no upper limit.
Typically due to finite resources, many people do tend to design their biggest size at around 1170- this is perfect for the most common screen sizes*, found in laptop computers, and works just fine for large desktop resolutions too.
But by all means feel free to also design for larger sizes if you expect users to be using them and you think you can take advantage of the bigger screen size to do something better than restricting yourself to a small box. 1920x1080 is the second most popular resolution afterall.