I've known it as auto-tab, but avoid using these if you can!
They have bad UX -- if the user makes a mistake in the last character of an input, they can't just hit delete (the expected functionality for 99.9% of other inputs). They'll have to use the mouse or shift+tab to go back to the other inputs. It also ruins the ability to copy/paste.
Somebody just mentioned in a comment: "Under certain circumstances this is a blessing. The use case is bureaucratic forms with fixed-length data common in banks, gov offices and the like, with which the user works several hours per day". This could be solved by simply formatting the input with spaces, dashes, etc using masked inputs
Using several inputs unnecessarily fragments the data and will mean that it will have to be concatenated either on the front-end or back-end.
If it isn't meant to be concatenated and is a matter of having to store the data as separate items, then split it in the back-end -- the UX should be decoupled from that.
The only valid use case I can think of is to troll pirates by making them type out key codes instead of allowing them to paste. ;)