Save is usually best, but it depends on the form layout.
If it is clear what the save button refers to, then using the verb without the noun reduces cognitive load for the user:
- It's more easily scanned
- She only needs to process one word vs two to understand the function of the button
A well placed Save button often has the following qualities:
- It appears at the right place in the visual workflow of the page (eg after the user has completed a form)
- It is clearly an interactive element (eg it's rendered as a button)
- It's placed in visual relation to the scope of the save operation (eg it appears in the same island as the form, or adjacent to it)
If, on the other hand, the object/scope of the button is not clear (eg if the button is placed away from the form, if there are multiple forms on the same page, or if the button saves content that is outside the displayed page as in a wizard), then it can be necessary to add a noun or even more descriptive text to make the scope of the operation clear to users.
Other people's usability testing is unlikely to be helpful to you because -- as the design critique above suggests -- the effectiveness of 1 vs 2+ words is dependent on the layout of the site.