First of all, you can do something like this site, see image below
however, it might be a bit convoluted for your needs.
So, another option could be as follow:
obviously, you can (and should) load the sub menu in closed state, I'm showing them in open for visualization purposes. Please note the separators as well, they're important.
With the above, we could easily get to something like this as well:
Obviously, you could use any of the 2 samples above, only that loading the sub menu on the side (in this case the arrows should point to the right)
And a final option could be to make a 2-steps option:
- Step 1
User selects a filter taxonomy, for example Most voted
- Step 2
Dropdown with taxonomies fade to show only the time frame variables and "apply filter" / "back to filters" buttons
While this might seems more complex, it's actually less confusing and takes only one additional click, which is highly compensated by the fact the user gets way more reduced friction by having no additional alternatives on screen
In any case, you'll need to test out and see which one works better for you