This is a good question to revisit, since there has been a lot of changes to the way applications are designed on the web (and mobile devices) compared to the traditional desktop applications.
The classic way of defining a view (in the Model/View/Control solution architecture) is the segregation or abstraction of the user interface or presentation of data from the underlying system. This was the primary distinction between the front-end and back-end side of things from a designer and developer's point of view. However, the modern web applications seem to take a more hybrid approach to try and integrate the view with the control a little bit more tightly.
More broadly speaking (and more specifically from a design point of view), I would say that you can define a 'view in an abstract or concrete way to suit your purpose and design system/language.
An abstract way to define a view is to relate it to a particular user's perspective, such that two different users can have the same view (e.g. logged out view), different views (e.g. logged in landing page view), or same view with slightly different content (e.g. access permissions or personalization).
A concrete way to define a view is to relate it to the design pattern and information architecture that is actually implemented. For example, you can define a mobile vs. desktop view of a page which may have the same content and layout that is scaled in different view ports.
You might even take a slightly hybrid approach and use some combination of the two approaches to come up with something that works for you.