Had to deal w/a similar issue last year.
Our task, which we couldn't change, was to convert an 11-section, 120-question "learning style" survey PDF into an interactive quiz. The original PDF is a daunting 10-pg list of questions & checkboxes, much like your example, which no student really wants to complete.
Our solution was to break it up by sections, and display it more like a "Buzzfeed" quiz w/only 1 question at a time. The goal was to help respondents focus their attention on the question at hand without being too distracted or put-off by a never-ending form.
Instead of radio buttons, we just used a large touch-friendly div w/a jQuery event listener to determine which one was tapped and save the result. Read 1 question; choose 1 response; repeat until finished.
The screen displays indicators for # of sections & questions remaining, along w/current question counter and section title. You cannot skip or repeat individual questions (the results would be meaningless), but you can skip between sections.
Results are calculated & displayed after each section, rather than after the entire thing, to provide a sense of progress/completion, and to give the impression the survey was short & quick instead of long & boring. The eventual plan was to allow user login so they could complete the survey in multiple visits, but initially it was all-or-nothing w/no progress saved.
The project was cancelled shortly after completing a basic working prototype, but it is completely responsive & functional on mobile as well as desktop. This was much easier to do w/a single question & answer than with an entire table involving hundreds of radio buttons. CSS animations between questions/sections were also planned to make the UI more lively & interactive, while making sure the content would still display properly in older browsers.
Note that we didn't care about collating data or tracking specific Q&A pairs - only with adding up how many times someone answered a particular way in a given section (e.g. 4x "Never" and 3x "Always). Presumably you'll actually care about tracking and collating specific questions & answers, so figuring out how to structure & store the data is a key consideration. That shouldn't affect the UI though.