First off, you have a mix of determinate and indeterminate progress indicators. All your examples, but #3, are determinate and show that your system can quantify how much progress has been made towards a known total. #3 is indeterminate, meaning something is happening but your system doesn't know how close it is to completed.
My suggestions? Number #3 or #5. See below for why.
#1 seems aesthetically pleasing, it could be rather subtle and you might run into an issue where the user has clicked and may believe nothing has happened or the system is unresponsive if they don't notice the animation.
#2 incorporates some change, showing that the system has responded. However it is very similar, yet different, from the original state, and to me looks like something broke.
#3 As mentioned in the first paragraph, this is the only indeterminate progress indicator, so if your action has an unknown completion time or progress, this is your go-to of the 5 examples. I like this treatment as it is clear that something has happened, and avoids the user attempting to click the button again. You often see something similar to this on "Place Order" call to actions in e-commerce sites, helping to assure the user they can't accidentally place multiple orders.
#4 and #5 are very similar, but I think of the two #5 looks better. This is the determinate cousin of #3. I think it has the same advantages as #3.
I hope this helps with your decision.