Did you intent to post a picture of the actual timeline? Because it is not there :)
In terms of the filtering, I read the filter applied above as:
"Find events from september 2015 that fall on the dates 2nd, 18th OR 19th."
Seems like a weird way to filter a timeline. Fine if I want to get a timeline of what I'm doing on the 3rd of january, march and june in years 2012, 2014 and 2015, but who filters dates like that? What is the chance that I would be doing something related on the 3rd of january in both 2012 and 2015 (3rd day hangover, maybe :p)
What I think you want to do is to set a range of dates and basically show a subset of the timeline within that range. Depending on how you design the timeline, this could be solved simply by zooming up the timeline, thereby hiding dates beyond the visible bounds.
Maybe the problem you are trying to address is the fact that there might be a lot of activity within very short time and you want to clear that up. My argument is that filtering by dates is probably not going to be great, as there is rarely a semantic correlation between a specific date each month (payday, maybe, but that might shift from the 28th to the 31st or maybe even 1st in some cases).
Don't you have some more semantic metadata you could use to filter your timeline?
As an example, say it is a CV visualized on a timeline, you could pinch to zoom in on a specific fragment of the timeline. There you realize that there is too much activity to see what is going on, so you filter the timeline to show "internships" or you filter it to show "jobs involving PHP" or something similar.
Also for the visual design of the timeline, I had to do a responsive site with a timeline recently. I ended up having a horizontal timeline on desktop-size displays and a vertical one for mobile devices. Seemed to work well for me. Just a quick tip.
Hope this helps?