Warning: Lots of music video links in the content. Grab my playlist! :)
Music is something that can not get searched non emotionally. When you are trying to tackle this from a technical perspective
Which fields in the dataset should be filterable?
the you are already on the wrong route. The question you will ask yourself always is
What is my current mood?
and sometimes even
In what mood do I want to be right now?
so forget the idea of searching facts about tracks.
When you are talking to (good) DJs or music collectors (or both in one person), then you will see a completely different view. To people interested in music, the music composed and produced by Tricky will be closely related to Aphex Twin, David Bowie and Trent Reznor. The simple fact is that their take on music is related - something that you can't add as a tag, a category or otherwise.
And while I would love to find Kelis, Dead Prez or Lords of Brooklyn in the same search results, someone else would want to stumble upon Sister of Mercy or maybe on (urgh) ... Genesis No way that I link that. Technically Sisters of Mercy could be stuffed together with Genesis, but honestly, I would rather kill someone for that attempt than to listen to it a second time. Again, that's a "false true" as it fits technically (by ~type, used instruments or time being published), but never ever for someone who can not see both together.
A network ... graph?
I could imagine a dozen fitting UIs, starting from a network graph to a list of related artists that one can up/downvote (or dismiss completely), but there is one thing that every UI has in common:
Music is personal. Let a user decide what is related.
The only thing important for you is to let your system remember a users selection, but distinguish between "not in the mood for that" and "urgh! not in my face!".
What about tech?
Initially you won't have any results at all - with what I described above. And that is where the "weight" of hard facts still will come into play, but it should decrease over time, when the user matures in your systems and the system will be defined by him. As a starting point Anna F. is in the same "genre" as Lilly Allen. Later on, maybe Fat Freddys Drop or Kate Nash will take over and be closer related.
If you understand the reason why there is a cassette and a pencil in that picture, then you will understand the answer for sure.