I couldn't find a better match of SE site to ask than UX. My question is what is the technical term when a user have difficulty (cognitively speaking) of using a real system because the user was learning the wrong things (experience wrong perception) in the simulated system?

As you know, to create a life-like simulator you need a lot of data data from actual system. Unfortunately, not all data can be provided (e.g., simulating a physical behaviour of a virtual crane under bad weather -- swinging cables, buzzing electronic devices, static in radio communication, water gets into the cockpit, bending and twisting rate of trusses depending material properties, etc), and thus compromised.

When compromised too much, user will perceive, experience and might learn some things in the simulation incorrectly (as the simulation no longer presents an actual system). When exposed to a real scenario, often, it is very challenging, as the user need to cope with a far complex-dynamic-high consequence actions, while correcting the wrong schema in the prior knowledge.

The question is: What is the technical term for this obnoxious experience?

Please provide a credible source, which I can look into.

1 Answer 1


"Negative training" (or related "negative transfer" or "negative learning"), which can be defined as when simulator experience leads to incorrect understanding or habits, or interferes with performing the operational task.


Summers JE (2012). Simulation-based Military Training: An Engineering Approach to Better Addressing Competing Environmental, Fiscal, and Security Concerns. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 98(1). http://www.washacadsci.org/Journal/Journalarticles/V.98-1-simulation_based_military_training_jSummers.pdf.

International Atomic Energy Agency (2006). Guidelines for upgrade and modernization of nuclear power plant training simulators. IAEA-TECDOC-1500. http://www-pub.iaea.org/mtcd/publications/pdf/te_1500_web.pdf

Bürki-Cohen, J (2011). Literature for Flight Simulator (Motion) Requirements Research. Washington, DC: Federal Aviation Administration. http://ntlsearch.bts.gov/tris/record/ntl/34992.html

National Training and Simulation Association. Simulation Training Evaluation. http://www.trainingsystems.org/TTCP/html/evaluation_simulation/simulation_training_eval.html.

  • Articles by Summers (2012) and Burki-Cohen (2011) are most helpful. The last link you provided led me to the actual technical report by Martin (1981). Very helpful indeed.
    – ikel
    Aug 13, 2013 at 4:39

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