As far as I know, there is no such a thing.
However, you must make one yourself, specific for your application, your set of applications, or your company, depending on how far you want to be consistent. It's called a UX Style Guide. If it's just for one application you may also include it in the functional specifications of the UI for that application.
The reason why you ended up in that situation is because different developers are only looking for a solution within their own work, without caring what other developers do. If you ask 1 developer "put a button here with an information icon on it", he will just use Google to find a suitable icon. If you ask another developer to "put a button there with an information icon on it" he will do the same, and it would be a very lucky coincidence if both programmers would end up using the same icon.
A style guide, or a clear functional specification is a good way to deal with this. This will make sure you will have a consistent UI style throughout the entire application. Mind that these guidelines can describe many aspects of the UI, not just usage of icons. If you say that the icons are inconsistent within your application, I bet other things are also inconsistent.