When some information takes up too much space, the first questions you should ask is, "Does this need to be available at this stage of interaction?" (in other words, "what kind of actionable value does this information provide to the user seeing?").
In your situation, opponents might need to know only how much superior/inferior the others are or maybe just the absolute rank, while the current player may only care about points left until the next rank up. Ask your beta testers or at least put yourself in your user's shoes and see what's needed because right now we're solving for "what [you] want to show".
Once you know your users' needs, you can start arranging elements on the screen. The question to be asked at this stage is, "Doe this information need to be visible at all times?". It could be that users want it on demand so you can use the longer notation. If they do need it at all times, replacing words with graphical metaphors isn't simple.
The key to a good icon is universal meaning of what it represents. In games, it's possible to teach players about local conventions, such as red circle for health and blue circle for mana. It's also possible to use some conventions for rankings, such is the case in military-themed games where chevrons are used. However, you're asking for icons to represent total earnings of "points", absolute rank, and points remaining until gaining a position. They can be easily expressed in a short text notation as
No. 456 | 789/794 pts. and explained that the first number is the current points & the second number is points needed to gain a position.
If you still want icons, you can go with what Ben Brocka has suggested. Though beware that when an icon is too small it becomes hard to discern what it represents.