In their accessibility settings Windows etc. have colour filters for colour-blind people, such as people with Red-Green-Deficiencies (Deuteranopia, Protanopia etc.). As a non-affected person, I wonder about their purpose and implication on my work to make my content accessible. Is their purpose to a) simulate the appearance of the screen as a colour-blind person would perceive it or b) make the screen content better visible for a colour-blind person? In case a) I would have to improve my contents visibility, but not in case b).

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Looking at Microsoft's guide to using the accessibility settings, the purpose of these filters is to assist people with colour blindness to see the features on the screen better (your option b).

If you look at this screenshot from the above article, it lists different types of colour blindness (protanopia, tritanopia, deuteranopia) next to the filters that are meant to help users with that type of colour blindness.

Colour filter settings on Windows

If you want to see what the screen would look like to people with different types of colour blindness, use this colour blindness simulator

There's another colour blindness simulator where you can upload documents, too.

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