1 - I suggest you determine what type of dashboard you want to build.
- Operational dashboards.
- Strategic and executive dashboards.
- Analytical dashboards.
Each of these contains more or less data and is intended for a different use and display (computer, mobile, TV?) For example, dashboards for the sales team displayed on a TV need to use larger fonts, some of which can be read at 50 feet...
2 - I recommend 16px and 14px min, but it depends on your font. The best advice is to create a user interface that allows the user to find their data in less than 5 seconds.
3 - Find a good monospaced font with no variable heights.