This is a very interesting question. I'm not sure if it's been asked before on this site, but I've been asked it many times (and still do with every new person who works with me). Simply put, it's about how you document everything, so it's the cornerstone of your work within a particular organization.
Without further ado, there are many ways to do this, and not necessarily on a daily basis. For example, you can create a short daily report and send it via email or through an intranet (or even through a CMS like WordPress where all posts are in private mode!).
It sounds like you're trying to convey what your work looked like on a given day. But I suggest you focus on the task at hand: it doesn't matter if it takes you a day or a month, what matters is that you get the job done. In fact, I'd be very surprised if you could finish tasks all days every day.
In short, create tasks and then use any task management tool like Trello, Asana, JIRA, ClickUp or others. The basic features of these tools are free and more than sufficient for your needs. If you want to share daily progress with others, you can also create subtasks or comments with data.