Is it good UX to combine dropdown and segmented control?
Something like this:
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There is a good article on Medium written about the use of segmented controls including this nicely presented flow chart / decision tree that you might want to reference and understand so you can apply it to your own project.
The other point I'll make (which was touched on in the article) is about how creating a new component or pattern can have an influence on the rest of your user interface design or design system, so you should also think about the bigger picture.
So to answer your question, I think whether you should combine the dropdown with the segmented control depends on whether you think that they should be separate actions and also if this is something that is a one-off use case or a design that you want to take forward and apply elsewhere.
Theoretically, and on other context as shown on your picture - its not wrong to use it. But in your case user might misunderstand corelation between two elements (user might think that selecting dropdown will or somehow affects the segmented control, as they are close).
For the sake of consistency you could just replace segmented control with another dropdown. You will achieve consistency, and one click / tap more for user is not so problematic.
I understand that segmented controllers switch between different data sets. I don't speak spanish but it appears that you may using the segmented controller to sort the same data by lowest price and closest gas station. You may want to use a dropdown labeled "Sort By" to present the same data set in a different order.