This is a huge "it depends" question. Each type of research method and methodology has its own set of techniques.
First, you need to determine the method (for example: quantitative, qualitative, summative), then the methodology to be used (what type of research will you use? It could be a survey, open-ended questions, framed questions, any type of scale, etc.).
Once you have this defined, you will usually have a set of predetermined questions, or at least a guide for creating your own questions.
So, defining your methodology will probably give you the answer you're looking for.
Nonetheless, here you have some example questions for user interviews based on different methodologies, and another article containing more information on the same topic with pretty good visual examples. Also, some information on how to do UX scientific research (disclaimer: the latter was written by my wife).