I can appreciate that using a grid of cards is useful when there are pictures or graphical information to display. However, are there any other pros/cons of using one over the other to display a large amount of data?
There are well-established patterns for the usage of tables to display information versus using cards. As you mentioned before, it can be helpful to display pictures or graphical information in a grid of card but there are also trade-offs.
In general, the benefits of displaying information in a grid of cards is based on the convenience of this implementation approach, mainly that for small number of content that don't need to be sorted or compared, the grid layout is a compact way to encapsulate different bits of information into a card.
For large amount of data, the convenience and efficiency of using grid layout and card components is largely lost because of the additional requirements of needing to sort, compare and find information much more efficiently will be difficult within the constraints of grid layout and card components.
This really depends on the kind of information and how the user is likely to use this information.
Consider an e-commerce catalog for apparel. Here a card grid layout will be more relevant. Compare this to an e-commerce catalog showcasing phones or laptops. in this case, the visual will not be as important as the technical specifications. So a list maybe better suited. Also in a list, it's easier to compare information as well.
For tables sorting and comparing are probably biggest advantages. With the fact that this UI patter is taken over from sheets, so lot of business people are used to it. For Cards I can think of - that are in some cases easier to read, more animations incl. drag and drop can be better implemented, as that they are much better for mobile / responsive.