Removing Items is Disruptive and Burdensome
The problem with the item disappearing is that the user may not be done with it. After making the change to the property, the user may want to look at (or change) other things in the item, but now it’s gone, and it can be hard to retrieve (does the user remember the exact ID of the item in order to find it?). What if the user wants to see the effect of changing the property on the item (i.e., it happens to affect other things about it)? What if the user needs to change two properties where either one by itself makes it disappear? If the user accidentally changed the property, it could be a real pain to correct, unless you have a particularly good Undo feature. Disappearing items can be visually disruptive too. If the users are working their way through the list, the disappearance of the item they’re working on can make them lose their place in the list. The users would recognize the item they just changed, but they often won’t notice the identity of the next item in the list.
It may help to highlight the properties that are in the filter criteria, like Luke Griffiths suggests, but (a) unless it’s a binary field, the system can only tell the user that a change might make the item disappear, and (b) in any case, the system is forcing users to work in a certain order. That is, the users have to be sure that editing a certain property is the last thing the users do with the item. That requires thinking, planning, and remembering that imposes a cognitive burden on the users. The system can wait to remove the item until the user saves the changes (if you have an explicit save command), but now the users have to be careful not to save until they’re “done.” You’re still forcing the user into a de facto mode, rather than letting them do whatever they want whenever they want, plus deferring a save could lead to lost work.
Mark Non-fitting Items
Filtering and editing items are often have separate goals. The user filters to select items to work on. Once they’re working on them, they often don’t not care if items continue to fit the filter or not –it’s just a “list of items I’m working on,” not a “list of items with balance due” or whatever.
Nonetheless there will be cases where the user could be confused by items that don’t fit the filter. For example, the users may return from lunch and think an item still has a certain property value since the users remember (or see) the filter setting, but forgot they changed the property. The solution is to mark each item in the list if it fails to match the filtering. As commenter jazZo suggests, the marking itself is also ideally a light-weight button that “applies” the filter to only that item (i.e., removes it), so the users have the option of selectively getting non-fitting items off the screen if they're a nuisance. The users should also have an easy way (say, one or two clicks) to re-apply the filter to all items at once (e.g., a button at the top of the list).
The button is probably best in the left margin of the list. In this case, I’d recommend it only appear for items that don’t fit the filter –to minimize clutter, do not show it for other items, not even in a disabled state. If your users rarely use the app, then the button should be labeled with something like “Refilter” or “Filter Out.” That will probably be enough to signal that the item doesn’t fit the current filter and that clicking the button will get rid of the item. If your users regularly use the app, and there is thus both justification and opportunity to learn about the app, then you can save some space by using an icon to label the button. A standard “Refresh” icon seems to work well:
Same Thing for Sort
BTW, you should do the same thing if changing a property changes where the item is in the sort order. Do not jump the item to its new place in the list. If focus follows the item, then the users have lost their place in the list, and they have to scroll/scan to find the next item they want to work on. If focus doesn’t follow the item, then the users have lost the item, and now have to scroll/scan to try to find it if they want to continue work on it. Window 10 Windows Explorer moves files when you rename them, and I find that behavior especially annoying. Instead, mark the item as not fitting the sort order with a button that moves the item to its new location.