The designers at Apple seem to have made a deliberate decision to make the dividers in the iOS settings page not span the full width of the screen.
What makes this better than full width dividers?
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The grey blocks, which span the full width, group certain settings together, for example About and Software Update.
Indenting the divider line between these two items, so to speak, makes it clear that the line seperates two items, but not groups.
Think of nested lists:
These, too, commonly use both indentation and a different item marker for each level.
It is not a design decision specific to the Settings app. But rather, that is how table views in iOS have been implemented.
The dividers that are indented to the right are simply so to demarcate that the line items that follow the divider are of the same series of records as the ones above the divider.
At best it is to provide some emphasis on the law of common region... or just a mere visual design gimmick.
The dividers are usually offset by the same amount as the record label. For example, with an icon in the table record, the offset would become
15px + (width of the icon) + 15px @1x. Whereas, if there is no icon, the record offset is just