While it is commendable to be considering this factor, you also have to think about the bigger picture here. That is, you are trying to make a game that you want as many people as possible to be interested in playing.
As you have said yourself the four colours you have listed are already an established set that your target audience is not only going to be familiar with, but probably fairly expecting that they are the same.
With that said, stick with the original 4 colours as default.
Now, if you are wanting to put in the extra effort to support colour blindness, which you appear to want, then don't cut any corners and do it the right way. Make it a user option to be able to select a colour palette. Either have a few different preset options for the different types of colour blindness, or go over the top and let the user select their own 4 colours.
Using patterns probably isn't going to look aesthetically pleasing to the majority of your users, so don't shoot yourself in the foot by putting off the many, just the please the few.
So that leaves the question: what about the rules not matching up?
Well if the rules are physically printed and/or in a single non-dynamic electronic document then there isn't much you can do. Which is all the more reason to stick with the original colours as default.
However, if you the rules are built in to your game UI, then it shouldn't be too much effort to make the instance of "colour name" variable: in both visual colour and display name. Basically, if the user has selected a different palette, then reflect that selection everywhere that the colour is referenced in the UI.
In short, these kind of scenarios should always be optional. Don't put your application at a disadvantage by forcing the same usability rules on all users.