This pattern is often called friction. Below is an excerpt from the article Friction in UX design can be benificial, by Mia Sheffields:
Friction in UX design is when something in the design slows the user down or makes it hard for them to accomplish their task. This can be a pop-up advising a user to sign up for a newsletter, an empty state page, or an “Are you sure you want to delete this” message. Although this sounds like a bad thing, in some cases, it can actually improve the user experience. Friction can increase cognitive load to improve the outcome of actions.
When used improperly, friction can hinder the customer experience and sometimes cause users to abandon a site. For example, if users are leaving items unpurchased in a cart you should make sure that it’s not a hassle to go through the checkout process. Use friction when it’s necessary for user’s best interests. Friction in UX design can be beneficial for extra security reasons and when users are about to complete a serious action.
A Google search returns many articles that explains the pattern with examples from real products, for example Designing Friction For A Better User Experience.
We can add friction to prevent errors, which is one of Jakob Nielsen's 10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design.
We can also add friction to influence user behaviour, in accordance with Nudge theory.
Harvard researchers found that products with a long waiting time can be perceived as more trustworthy than products with a short waiting time. This phenomenon is called The Labor Illusion.