Short answer is that I don't think it exists because it is a redundant design pattern due to the history of skeuomorphism in interface deisgn.
I am curious as to whether this type of design pattern is still used these days, as it is probably a type of skeuomorphism that tries to mimic the behaviour of something like this in real life called a button switch guard
People probably more commonly associated it with a Nuclear Button, although I guess it is a bit disappointing that it probably doesn't exist in real life...
Now in a digital environment, there is no need to apply this level of skeuomorphism because there are already existing patterns as you mentioned like the confirm to delete popup that serves exactly the same function (i.e. getting an additional confirmation before performing an action in case it was an accident).
It doesn't serve any additional purpose or benefit, and in fact there are better strategies to achieve the same outcome without an additional trigger/action such as using biometrics that require a specific contact point for a set period of time or something like a phone unlock pattern that requires a specific series of actions that is very difficult to trigger randomly.
So I think you would called it a skeuomorphic call-to-action confirmation design pattern that is implemented as a button switch guard.