Breadcrumbs are the wrong concept for your use case
Your problem, as you have found out: There are multiple valid routes from the currently selected item
Shakespeare to its category
Writer. Breadcrumbs, however, are at their best when there is only one route.
What to do?
Use tags on the items. Following your example,
Shakespeare would be tagged with
XVI century and
Dramaturgy. Tags are usually displayed using chips.
The tag system has quite a few advantages:
It improves discoverability, as a user can immediately read all categories your system provides without leaving the page or clicking anything
It will also improve uncertain search, as the user can provide more than one tag to search
It will require no more space than is needed to spell out the categories
All in all, the tag system will not only be better once you are at a writer's page, it will also streamline your way of finding one (or multiple)
Writers. Users are also already deeply familiar with the concept by their usage of online shops.
To provide tags, users usually select a filter and apply that. Just visit any online shop (except maybe Amazon) and look at their concept. A dropdown menu with multiple-select will probably suffice, but in case you have more complex needs, ebay opens a modal dialog ("eBay: Advanced search dialog displays parameter values as radio buttons.") to let users supply filters.
And your breadcrumb? It would simply be:
Writers // William Shakespeare
for bookmarking and sharing filters, your URL could display:
www.MyWeb.Site/Writers/Periods/XVI%20century/William%20Shakespeare.phpas aliases for the same page, or just
www.MyWeb.Site/pages/William%20Shakespeare_(writer).phpfor all 3 routes?