Are there any conventional names for these informational labels?
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I don't know of any generally accepted word for them, but if we are going to keep to the closest analogy in English they would be:
Sash - when it is shown as a piece of fabric across or around an item.
Ribbon - when the end of the ribbon is shown. Many awards are given in this way and they are almost always called ribbons.
They're all different types of Ribbon. The first one is a wrapping ribbon and the second one is a hanging ribbon. You also find the banner ribbon a lot if you just purely search for 'ribbon'. This ribbon pack is from Code Canyon.
We used to call them a "flash", which was confusing when compared to Adobe flash. It was used for any sort of addition to an image like "sale", "new in" or whatever. It was used irrespective of the style ( the term "sash" implies a particular style, but some clients used strips across the bottom or top or anywhere ).