On google account you have the option to choose a little image that will show up every time you are logged in. This is quite common across many websites and apps etc.
Would you call this Avatar-Image? I am not sure how to name this.
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If you're talking about just the image then it's commonly known as avatar, profile avatar or user account avatar.
Currently there's a trend of using a letter (usually the initial, sometimes 2 letters) for a neutral gender default avatar if the user hasn't selected one, instead of the previous generic-man-face and variations.