I am building a comment section and I am trying to display clear call to actions to get the user to participate in the current debate.
Your current design contradicts what you say you're looking for: the clear call to actions is visually subordinated to all the info content. In fact, all of the design contrasts are in favor of the content, not the action button: size, shape, color, proportion, spacing...
Although if this information is necessary and should occupy a larger space, some visual organization is necessary when designing. It can help to work at the schematic level to prioritize and relocate elements.
Without knowing the design base, I think organizing all the information within a single section and defining the action to this whole set can help:
For the responsive version it's exactly the same layout arranged vertically. To adjust the space and give greater importance to the container and its button, the content can be inside a slider.