I am very beginner in the development of system screens and I have a question about what would fit best from the progress information. To report whether the status of any process in a process list is new, executed, in progress, canceled, or terminated with error, would it be better to display a progress bar, icons, or something else?
For tasks in progress, progress bars are desirable, but you have listed states that cannot be represented by progress bars alone (new, executed, canceled, terminated with error). Depending on your interface, you could use icons, colors, or simply use text to describe the status.
Depending on your application, "new" may not be a useful state to indicate. More useful may be a duration or start time indicator.