I haven't found specific research about perceived speed for single-question, but it would be highly contextual and hard to generalize. The simplest way to decide this for your domain would be to create a prototype with both designs and test it on users.
In the meantime I would recommend taking a look at Luke Wroblewski's insightful article about onboarding of bike sharing apps. He reframes the question from being about perceived speed to being about getting to the user's core value asap.
On mobile breaking things up can work if you maintain information scent, indicate meaningful progress to trigger users need to complete and keep it short enough to maintain the users motivation.
There are three important concepts that I would use to consider if single-question is best:
- Interaction cost: Sum of cognitive and physical efforts
- Perceived complexity: How hard does it seem
If there are many questions on one page it might seem excessive and be perceived as more complex than one question at a time. However if the amount seems reasonable and they are connected, then there might be a higher interaction cost by answering one question at a time.
Jakob Nielsen points to that single step (one page) vs multistep (staged disclosure) also depends upon the use-context:
Staged disclosure is useful when you can divide a task into distinct steps that have little interaction. It is problematic when the steps are interdependent and users must alternate between them.
Source: Progressive disclousure