There is a special kind of databases called Column oriented DB. Maybe they have some useful UI patterns.
What we had in our case was a usual HTML table with most popular columns being visible. First column was locked and contained some unique key for rows, other columns were horizontally scrollable. First column of the header row contained hamburger icon, which in our case meant Column Control Menu. On pressing it, the huge popup menu appeared with alphabetical list of all possible columns. You could check/uncheck the columns you need. There was also a quick search for columns there.
For column oriented table you usually don't need to see all the columns at once, because data there is either sparse or not very unique.