EDIT: For completeness and with Andrews comment
I don't think there is "one name" for that section of the Dashboard apart from "Overview"
I you are asking about the content of that element these are all various "Metrics". The Metrics of what - that depends on the content of your Dashboard.
So if you are providing on overview of some data you are already displaying somewhere else on your Dashboard (graphs, tables..) these can be referred to as "Overview Metrics" (these can be totals, average, max, counters...)
Often in 3rd party products these are implemented as user configurable widgets.
As Andrew answered these could be called KPI's but I'd add only if they are KPIs defined by a customer: I could define various widgets that are not displayed in this way (top strip with numerical / metric overview) and are still a Key Performance indicators, also what if I have only one of these metrics be an actual KPI.
KPI is is just a role of presented metric, which might be differently communicated on the design so it stands out from other Metrics.