Can't say that I have ever come across any system/software/app that reminds user of recent updation of password. Never really thought that could or should be a feature. But now that you bring it up, let's see if this can be done.
My solution: Inform the user about the expiry date of their password
In most systems that ask the user to change their passwords as a regulation, there's fixed lifetime of each password (like, it is 60 days in my firm's network). Showing a message like, "You recently changed your password" or "You seem to be entering an old password" might have problems like:
- How to determine how many days can be considered "recent"?
- Could this lead to security risks like leak of password patterns (as people tend to use a pattern when they have to change it regularly so as to keep track)?
I would think having a message like, "Your password expires in 17 days" would keep the user aware of that deadline and also make them realize if they have changed it recently.
PS: I still think informing user about password changes before logging in is a MAJOR security risk. My answer is limited to the OP's situation