In his article Zoltan Kollin provides several alternatives to hamburger menus. Removing app solutions we're left with:
Show primary options, hide others under "more".
On smaller screens, show whatever you can and hide everything else under "more".The bigger screen, the more items are visible.
Swipe right to see more options.
Now the question is there any research (A/B tests, etc.) about which of these works best on websites? Is there any research about how better these vs hamburger (or even worse?).