I haven't heard a term which describes changing the UI based on AI, but I know of some similar concepts that might be a good starting point for you:
This is enhancing a website based on the person's device. If they have a faster phone, or a faster internet connection, or a larger screen, then more things can be shown to them (High quality images, animation effects, etc.)
This is more similar to what you're describing. Progressive reduction is taking elements of the user interface OUT because the user has become more familiar with the application. For example, the Facebook app might remove the labels from the bottom navigation bar once the person has been using it for two weeks, because at that point it's visual clutter and the person knows what each icon means.
Remembering UI choices
I'm not sure what to call this, but a lot of software remembers your UI choices for next time you use it. For example, Adobe Photoshop remembers the positions of your panels and which ones should be open.
This is simple, and has happened for many years already, but AI could be used to improve it. Perhaps the computer or webapp knows who is using the software without them having to log in, and changes the UI to their settings automatically?
I also recently heard about cars which change your settings (Generally in the onboard software) because each person gets their own key, and the car knows who is starting it based on their unique key.