Gestalt principles, specifically proximity and enclosure, come to mind here:
Users are likely to approach such data in two principle ways:
- Search for a label of interest then look at the value.
- Scan each label-value pair (top-down Z shape scan).
It is perhaps worth noting that in none of your examples the labels are left-aligned, which requires a tiny bit of extra effort to fixate on their first letter.
Also judging by your examples, it seems you may be concerned that if all columns are left-aligned, the space between the label and value could get too big to yield a form of visual detachment. Although probably not a real issue, you can always separate rows with a faint vertical line, or use row-background-toggle.
Just to demonstrate this, see if you had any problem finding the amount of plays Foo Fighters had:
This image was taken from this page, where you can see more table layouts like this.