These days the difference between web applications and native apps are quite blurred... but in terms of the question that you asked about the icons, I think it is hard to say whether the shape of the icon is linked to how the application is developed.
If anything, the shape of the icon will probably be determined by existing guidelines for the native application's development platform (e.g. Windows, Android or Apple), and even these will evolve over time so you have to look at apps of similar timeline. Then there will be additional branding guidelines dictated by the company and their marketing teams, and you might even have to delve into sub-brands.
There is definitely a need to differentiate between the web vs. native application, but I have not come across any guidelines or standards that define the shape of the icon which relates to the technology being used to develop them.