For numeric values consider bar charts and line charts. The canonical way of representing stock prices over time is a line chart, for example; people understand how to read that.
Consider the following example from http://www.uswx.com. This chart shows aligned regions conveying a bunch of numeric weather data over time:
You could align check boxes (booleans) or columns (text) vertically by date to show information that can't be graphed. Or you could add a symbol to the chart for each day; imagine the above with an icon for each day showing sun, sun + clouds, clouds, thunderheads, etc. (This is an example of choosing one value from a finite set of options.)
In these charts line type and color just serve to disambiguate among data elements shown in the same region (e.g. so you can tell dew point from temperature). Weather is continuous, so lines make sense; if your data is discrete you might instead use marks, one per day per numeric value, and that would give you the ability to use mark shape, color, border color, and possibly other factors to convey information.
Suppose, instead of weather, you are tracking somebody's nutrition and exercise. A day's slice of the space could show three marks for calories from protein, fat, and carbs; a mark could be red if this is over the RDA (a computed boolean value). A line could indicate total calories and a second line could indicate net calories -- input minus that day's exercise.
I'm just brain-storming here to try to show some possibilities.