Once the form is submitted, users expect for a sign showing them that their intended action was successful.
It's usually a message ("Thank you – etc.") displayed below the form, in a dialog or on a new page (depends on the context).
The input data usually get cleared on submission, to give visual evidence that the data have been "sent" somewhere.
In your case, one possible solution to make recurring, similar submissions easier and at the same time prevent users from accidentally submitting the form is:
- Clear form data after a successful submission;
- Show a message to confirm that action was successful;
- Add 2 call-to-actions: "Submit a similar form" and "Fill out a blank form" (you'll have to come up with a more relevant copy for your use case).
This is an example of what I mean:
I'm making some assumptions here, for instance that:
- a slight majority of users (and not all of them) will "want to submit a very similar set of data and only
need to change a few fields"
- even if "just" a slight majority of the users insert forms with very similar data, the chance of accidental submissions is high due to conditions of use (e.g., chaotic environment, typing speed, very similar data, etc)
- that the users will use the form frequently enough but NOT on a full-time basis (e.g. in a data entry company context the click on the "Submit a similar form button" will take too long).
If one of this assumptions is wrong (e.g., 95% of users will "want to submit a very similar set of data and only need to change a few fields" ) the UX above doesn't work anymore and there are other solutions you may want to explore, for instance:
- provide the users with different templates of pre-populated data (are there any recurring patterns in the data they insert?);
- allow the users to define their own templates;
- use JS and/or server side validation to prevent users from submitting to identical forms, one after the other;
- add an "Undo" option after submission.