Your "checkbox button" seems to have the following function : allow the user to open a filters or options view with additional items that you do not want to keep on the main view, for instance because they are useful in certain rare cases only.
Keeping the checkbox with no background and no caption is not an option because :
- it would be understood as "tick here to select this option" without saying which option
- it would surprise any user clicking on it as opening a more expanded view is not standard behaviour for a checkbox, especially if it is already ticked, which seems to be the case in your mockup.
Making a button embedding the ticked checkbox might also be confusing because of the mixing of the two behaviours and meanings (a button lets you think it will trigger an action whereas a checkbox allows you to tick something before a submission and its consequent action).
If you really wish to go this way, you might want to consider more symbolic representations in your button such as those you can find on http://uxrepo.com/icon/check-empty-by-font-awesome .
However, one recommendation could rather be to replace your checkbox by a small textual caption like "more filters", potentially italicized.