User Experience Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for user experience researchers and experts. Join them; it only takes a minute:

Sign up
Here's how it works:
  1. Anybody can ask a question
  2. Anybody can answer
  3. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top

This question already has an answer here:

This is not a programming question, but it concerns the programmer itself. So I don't know if it really belongs on this site. But my question is: what is better for the eyes, a dark color theme or a white color theme?

share|improve this question

marked as duplicate by Mervin Johnsingh, Erics, DA01, JonW Mar 2 '14 at 19:46

This question has been asked before and already has an answer. If those answers do not fully address your question, please ask a new question.

You might also find related answers here :… – Mervin Johnsingh Mar 2 '14 at 14:06
There are too many elements involved to be able to give you an accurate answer. – PatomaS Mar 2 '14 at 14:10
It can't be answered without understanding the full context of the application, the users, the content, the functionality, the use cases, etc, etc. – DA01 Mar 2 '14 at 15:45
I'm curious, would the limitations of the display technology make a difference as well? Considerations include: How black is black, and how white is white? Do black pixels and white pixels get refreshed equally well? Is there more "bleeding" at the edge of a white pixel if the display is a light source rather than a reflective surface? – 200_success Mar 2 '14 at 18:31
Some people are light sensitive. They commonly have to take steps to reduce white point. Be it allergies, a migraine or just eye-strain in general working 4-8 hours a day on a bright site or app. Its ok when your room is bright and you need the contrast. Even in presentations with projectors, you absolutely need the contrast. Something more subtle like a book or newspaper is far easier on my eyes. There are devices out there though that just can't get low enough for me. I associate these with a tanning booth or lightbulb. – Mark Jan 26 '15 at 17:09
up vote 74 down vote accepted

There has been a lot of research on this topic since the 1980s and a lot of it still holds true today. One study from the 1980s states this:

However, most studies have shown that dark characters on a light background are superior to light characters on a dark background (when the refresh rate is fairly high). For example, Bauer and Cavonius (1980) found that participants were 26% more accurate in reading text when they read it with dark characters on a light background.

Reference: Bauer, D., & Cavonius, C., R. (1980). Improving the legibility of visual display units through contrast reversal. In E. Grandjean, E. Vigliani (Eds.), Ergonomic Aspects of Visual Display Terminals (pp. 137-142). London: Taylor & Francis

The reason why this matters is because of focus. As this article on UXMovement states, "white stimulates all three types of color sensitive visual receptors in the human eye in nearly equal amounts." It causes the eye to focus by tightening the iris. Since the eye is focused, dark letter forms on light backgrounds are easier to read. When using a dark background with strong light letter forms, the iris opens to allow more light in, but that causes letter forms to blur. Why?

People with astigmatism (approximately 50% of the population) find it harder to read white text on black than black text on white. Part of this has to do with light levels: with a bright display (white background) the iris closes a bit more, decreasing the effect of the "deformed" lens; with a dark display (black background) the iris opens to receive more light and the deformation of the lens creates a much fuzzier focus at the eye.

Jason Harrison – Post Doctoral Fellow, Imager Lab Manager – Sensory Perception and Interaction Research Group, University of British Columbia

Now there seem to be varying factors into contrast and legibility. Room ambient lighting. Brightness of the monitor. Also you can mitigate the straining effects of white (#FFF) on black (#000) by simply lessening the contrast like using a light gray (#EEE, #DDD, #CCC) on a dark background (#111, #222).

Further reading:

share|improve this answer
One factor to consider which I don't see mentioned is that for applications which require distinguishing the colors of many different objects, I think it's easier to judge colors against a black background than against white. – supercat May 13 '14 at 13:58
+1 for all the sources/references linked – Adrien Be Aug 13 '14 at 10:28
@supercat I disagree – Shimmy Apr 2 '15 at 3:31
@Shimmy: How many different colors of text or thin-line-graphic objects would you be able to easily distinguish against a white background? – supercat Apr 2 '15 at 15:26
@supercat For me it's much easier to distinguish colors on a white background. I'm talking about recognizing those colors off screen. Maybe in real life it's different. – Shimmy Apr 3 '15 at 8:28

For me, a dark background in a dark room or a bright background in a bright room is ideal. Bright rooms causes the eye to let less light in, making dark backgrounds and the little bright letters even darker.

As for the dark room: being able to see the rest of the room is important for me to be able to look away from the screen now and then.

Have a look at GPS-devices for use in cars. They have different themes depending on the time of day.

share|improve this answer
+1 for pointing out with the GPS example – Raja Anbazhagan Dec 9 '15 at 14:31

Computer vision syndrome expert Dr. James Sheedy:

"The best color combination for your eyes is black text on a white background, though other dark-on-light combinations also work well."

SOURCE: (independent source of trustworthy information on eye health)

Personally for me light text on dark background strains my eyes, and that's why I have always wondered why so many colleagues use light text on dark background, and keep saying it's better for the eye, since for me only normal thing has been dark text on white background.

share|improve this answer
I have a hunch that statement was an over-generalization. It's never really been true in print, for example. Black on off-white or gray, sure...but not pure white. – DA01 Mar 2 '14 at 15:48
@DA01 yeah, that's why the sentence ends "though other dark-on-light combinations also work well". – Samuel M Mar 2 '14 at 16:27
The bias may be, in part, not due to qualities of the colour scheme in and of itself, but rather the high brightness of the monitors being used, especially in a poorly-lit environment. A dark background would emit far less vivid light levels than a light background. – Kenogu Labz Jun 21 at 21:08

Two things that can make this an "it depends" issue are environment and visual impairment.

Using an app at night might make lighter text on a dark background better. For example, I find it less straining (and certainly less annoying to my wife) to use a dark background reading e-books in bed). Someone needing to preserve night vision or security, such as military or law enforcement, might also require much less light emission. Another factor might be the content displayed in an application. For instance, where the content is primarily videos or movies, a darker, more "cinematic" UI will be appropriate.

Some visual impairments require high-contrast for legibility and this is occasionally aided by being able to select a reversed foreground/background color set.

share|improve this answer

You may be talking about strain and not personal taste. One thing I know, though, is that it is somewhat physically painful to look at themes that have dark backgrounds with extremely bright (high brightness and saturation) foreground icons/text. If you choose dark backgrounds, lessen the brightness and saturation but make it still readable without effort.

White background with dark text is commonplace, and I haven't heard of any eye strain complaint about it. Bright backgrounds such as #00ffff (aqua) with dark text are very straining, though.

share|improve this answer

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.