The $ symbol seems to be the most common symbol when we talk about money. Coins, bag (of coins) or generic bills are also common symbols/icons.
With the search 'icon money' on Google image you can see that almost all the icons involve the dollar symbol (money can be replaced in any language with the same result).
But the currency concept can't be defined by one symbol except the one mentioned in your question (but most people will not recognize it) because it isn't something generic. The concept of the currency itself implying a 'standard' per localization with a specific symbol, even if some countries have the same symbol (Australia or Canada as Jamesh mentioned it).
If you need an icon for currency management (e. g. setting user currency) or transactions, multiple currencies in one icon could be an interesting option.
But without more information about the target of your symbol I'm not sure if it could fit with your needs.
TL;DR You can't use a generic symbol for currency (except ¤ but it's probably a terrible idea) but you can use dollar symbol ($) or generic coins/bills icons if you're talking about money.