When designing an interface, you should focus on making it as easy to use as you can, not on doing something new for the sake of it. And as your question stands you haven't really shown what the problem with checkboxes is that you are going to solve with icons and colours.
So breaking it down with specific reasons:
- Checkboxes clearly indicate their state without the need for a legend, but using different coloured icons does not. "Is orange the selected state? Wait, no, maybe it's black."
- Checkboxes are immediately recognisable and they indicate their interaction model without the need of any explanation. Icons do none of this. Even with the title asking about icons as checkboxes, it still took me a while to work out what the icons were there for - and that was only because I saw the checkbox example next to it.
- You aren't proposing any improvement other than possibly preferring icons visually over checkboxes. Here I would argue that the checkboxes are cleaner with lower cognitive load, and hence a better design.
TL;DR: Don't use icons as checkboxes.