I think you should be fine with the pencil icon for edit since Wikipedia has this to say about the universal edit button.
The Universal Edit Button is a green pencil icon in the address bar of
a web browser that indicates whether a web page on the World Wide Web
(most often a wiki) is editable. It is similar to the orange
"broadcast" RSS icon () that indicates that there is a web feed
available. Clicking the icon opens the edit window. It was invented by
a collaborative team of wiki enthusiasts, including Ward Cunningham,
Jack Herrick, and many others.
It even has a site Called the universaleditbutton.org.
The definitive source of information about what icons can be used across international applications is the International Standards Organization ISO/IEC 11581 which is unfortunately a paid download but should be useful if you really are serious about this.
That said, there are some icon types you should be particularly careful with as quoted from this article
Symbols and icons showing a thumbs-up, two-fingered V and OK sign are
considered very positive in the United States. However, even former
U.S. presidents Richard Nixon and George H.W. Bush have found that
other cultures consider these hand gestures the international
equivalent of a vulgar middle finger. Even a disembodied hand, which
we often see in software manuals and user interfaces, can be
considered offensive in some locales.
Animal symbols can also be dangerous. For example, owls symbolize
wisdom in the United States, and an e-learning website may use an icon
of an owl to symbolize that a user or student is performing well in an
online course. However, owls symbolize stupidity in some parts of
Asia, and Asian students may be insulted, not encouraged, by such an
Religious symbols can, of course, be particularly sensitive.
Microsoft’s geopolitical product strategy team once avoided
embarrassment by preventing the release of the company’s Office XP
software containing a moon and stars astrology icon that resembled the
Islamic Hila symbol. When religious symbols cannot be avoided, they
must be localized, such as when the Red Cross has been adapted as the
Red Crescent in the Middle East.
I also recommend looking at this article about icon standards for more inputs.