I don't know about academic research, but here is an article that explores this avenue (option #4).
They recommend displaying a summary of the form data (in this case address data) in order to reduce the chance of disorientation (as you mentioned) and additionally provide the user with a way back to the original form, in case they actually do want to go back and modify their input.
From their summary:
The “error fields only” approach is usually best when inline validation wouldn’t quite work. In April 2012, we benchmarked the top 100 e-commerce websites in the world and found that only 8% use live inline validation during checkout (likely due to having to validate both postal addresses and credit cards). In general, the longer the form and the more complex the inputted data and its dependencies, the more likely the error-fields-only approach is the best choice.
On smartphones, the error-fields-only approach has an advantage over the same-page-reload technique, because users typically lack an overview and context of the form due to the small screen. In such cases, displaying only the erroneous fields would help the user focus on the task at hand.
My personal intuition is that this approach will work in most cases with the aforementioned benefits; the reason that this approach isn't taken more often is simply because it is more technically complex than "reshow the form with a validation summary". That said, however, you need to keep in mind that if your form data can't be easily summarized for the user, this approach might actually decrease usability over just reshowing the form with errors.