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You're thinking of a single page website. The general idea is to just keep everything inside a single HTML page which makes managing loading times, styles and content generally easy for low-content sites, with none of the "white flash" of navigating between different HTML pages in multiple requests. They're very popular lately for portfolios or simple business websites. They don't even have to be "long", and sometimes the anchored links take you to different visual pages, but generally the defining feature is a single html request. AJAX and simply hiding/showing different divs/parts of the page can prevent the "long vertical" aspect of these sites while maintaining a moderate amount of content.

They're a bit of a craze and have some fans like which collects good examples.

Something that could be the same and could be different is the Single Page Application which is realistically only different in that "Application" tends to mean you can do something with it (like Gmail) while "website" tends to mean you see things but have less interaction with them (like a portfolio site).

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The problem with "Single Page Website" is that it doesn't convey these anchored link websites that adapts to different screen sizes and shows different sections within a single page. It's just that I needed it for a client presentation. – Van Feb 12 '13 at 22:12
@user24869 the anchored links are a common part of their construction. That's the main way navigation is handled – Ben Brocka Feb 12 '13 at 22:14

Parallax scrolling sites is the closest term I would apply to these examples. But parallax scrolling can be horizontal as well as vertical and typically will have anchored hashbang type urls for deep linking also.

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Parallax scrolling is different--it is where the background image scrolls at a lower rate than the foreground elements creating a sense of depth/distance between the two. It is similar to the OPs q but all of these examples have foreground and background scrolling at the same rate. – Charles Wesley Feb 12 '13 at 21:50
@charles agreed about the definition of parallax - the first 3 examples I looked at above all had parallax scrolling, the first one I guess is arguable but the foreground definitely does not move at the same time as the background... the 4th I see is regular scrolling - I think Ben's single page site is a better definition but the trend for parallax scrolling sites does overlap somewhat :) – A Macdonald Feb 12 '13 at 22:05

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