Suffering from cataracts myself, I can assure you from myself, as well as others, that white or very light text on black is much more efficient for us. The research is there as well if you research low vision disorders. It all had to do with the amount of bright white light.
There are some screens on some programs where there is so much white, all we see is glare. Sometimes this even makes it tough for us to spot the mouse much less text, even using an inverted pointer type.
I use high contrast black for most of my work on the PC, using white text or bright cyan. Otherwise I can't focus or see anything sue to the glare of a white or light background.
I'm also an avid gamer, and this presents even more problems, as I need to switch from HC back to a regular theme to run games properly and at the correct resolution. If the text and UI are black with light text, then I have no problems, otherwise I have to find a way to make the UI's larger and more legible to compensate for glare. Color or profile choices for individual users would be a great option.
As far as web browsing goes, I use a wonderful little extension for Chrome and Opera called Deluminate. It has various one-click settings to apply HC black to websites, as well as a "Smart Invert images" and "Keep images normal" setting. It works better than anything I've tried yet, but still has some problems with a random completely incompatible website now and then. It then gives you a slider for those sites to simply lower the contrast on the white page.
Glare and bright whites seems to be the biggest problem for those with low vision disorders like mine.